No vaccines are currently available for Arboviruses.
Diagnosis & Management
West Nile Virus (WNV)
- Neuroinvasive WNV infection: meningitis, encephalitis or acute flaccid paralysis
- <1% of infected individuals develop WNV neuroinvasive disease
- May result in residual neurological deficits or death
- Risk groups include:
- adults > 50 years old
- organ transplant recipients or immunocompromised patients
- WNV Fever
- 20% of infected individuals develop WNV fever
- Fever accompanied by other symptoms, such as headache, body aches, joint pains, vomiting, diarrhea, or rash
- Most recover completely, but fatigue and weakness can last for weeks or months
Between May and October, collect cerebrospinal fluid and serum for WNV IgM and IgG testing from patients who present with suspected WNV infections or unexplained encephalitis or meningitis. WNV-specific IgM in serum or CSF is preferred for laboratory confirmation. Consider the specimen type and timing of collection when ordering WNV-specific IgM testing.
- Serum: Collect 8 to 14 days after illness onset. Draw and test additional serum if collected too early.
- CSF: Collect within 8 days of illness onset. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) or culture for other viral etiologies (i.e., herpes simplex virus, enterovirus, etc) should also be ordered.
A 4-fold increase in WNV-specific IgG titers from acute and convalescent serum collected at least 2-weeks apart can also confirm diagnosis. Contact the Division of Disease Control at (215) 685-6742 to help facilitate specimen submission to the PA Department of Health laboratory for confirmatory testing.
If chikungunya, dengue, or Zika is suspected, collect serum and test for all three. Testing for all three pathogens is available through the PA Department of Health laboratory and PDPH should be contacted at (215) 685-6742 for testing requests (see specimen submission guidance). Commercial laboratories are offering arboviral testing, but assays available vary by laboratory, and providers will also need to place separate orders for each arbovirus (chikungunya, dengue, and Zika).
The type of assay(s) performed will depend on the time from illness onset to specimen collection.
- Day 1 to 3 of illness: Order polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
*Note: Dengue PCR availability is limited
- Day 4 to 7 of illness: Order PCR, IgM, & IgG
- Day 8 and after: Order IgM, & IgG
For detailed information on screening and testing pregnant women and their infants for Zika, click here to view the Zika Virus Guidance page
The following laboratory results can help confirm diagnosis:
- Positive virus-specific PCR
- Positive virus-specific IgM titer with evidence of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies
*Note: Neutralization tests that help differentiate arboviral pathogens are only available through public health laboratories
- 4-fold change in virus-specific IgG titers from acute and convalescent serum (collected =2 weeks apart)
- Patients with chikungunya or Zika should be managed as dengue with acetaminophen recommended for initial treatment.
- If dengue, which causes hemorrhagic complications, has been ruled out, NSAIDS or narcotics may be considered to manage fever and pain.
Reporting to PDPH
- Report West Nile Virus cases immediately to PDPH by calling 215-685-6748 during business hours or calling 215-686-4514 after normal business hours.
- To arrange for testing and report suspected Zika cases, contact to PDPH by calling 215-685-6742 during business hours
- Report dengue and chikungunya cases within 5 days by calling 215-685-6748 or faxing a disease report form to 215-238-6947.
Guidelines for Management and Control
- During warmer months (May-October) in Philadelphia and when traveling to areas with local transmission of chikungunya, dengue or Zika, encourage patients to take personal prevention measures :
- use mosquito repellent
- stay in well-screened, air-conditioned accommodations
- wear long pants and sleeves when weather permits
- Remove standing water outside their home twice a week
- Pregnant women or women planning to become pregnant due to the risk of congenital infection along with adults > 65 years of age and persons with underlying conditions (e.g., hypertension, diabetes, etc) who are at risk for severe disease should consider not traveling to areas with ongoing chikungunya or Zika outbreaks
- Advise patients with suspected chikungunya, dengue, or Zika infections to stay indoors and avoid mosquito bites for the first 7 days of illness to prevent local transmission
Prevention of Transmission for Returning Travelers
- Advise patients with suspected Zika, dengue, or chikungunya infections to stay indoors and avoid mosquito bites for the first 7 days of illness to prevent local transmission
- See the Zika Guidance page for information on the prevention of sexual transmission of Zika and congenital Zika infections
Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika
- Since sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible and Zika virus may persist in semen longer than blood, providers should provide counseling to prevent sexual transmission to men who traveled to a country with Zika transmission and their partners.
- Those who have a pregnant partner should abstain from sexual activity or consistently and correctly use condoms during sex for the duration of the pregnancy
- Those with non-pregnant partners might consider abstaining from sexual activity or using condoms consistently and correctly during sex
- When more information on the duration seminal shedding becomes available, more definitive time frames for the prevention of sexual transmission will be provided
Clinical Guidelines for West Nile Virus
Clinical Guidelines for Chikungunya
Clinical Guidelines for Dengue
Clinical Guidelines for Zika
For Healthcare Providers:
Health Educational Materials
Links and Resources
For Patients and Community Members:
There are no patient or community resources for Arboviruses.
There are no posters for Arboviruses.